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    Early Vedic - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. VEDIC LITERATURE. Indian culture is original and creative. It is a very old culture. In ordinary language, no distinction is made between culture and civilization. Vedic Literature. The Vedas are the oldest scriptures of India. They are the seeds, from which the huge tree of Indian thought has evolved. The aspects such as.

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    Vedic Literature Pdf

    To say that Sanskrit literature alone exceeds that of Greece or Rome is an error. Sanskrit—cultivated for literary purposes long after it had ceased to be a spo-. One of the ancient and rich literatures of India is the Vedic literature which Vedic literature not only outlines the numerous Hindu rituals and. PDF | a comparative study to find the traces of data transmission in Vedic Literature. A special instrument devised to find the conversation.

    Who can here proclaim it? Whence, whence this creation sprang? Gods came later, after the creation of this universe. Who then knows whence it has arisen? Whether God's will created it, or whether He was mute; Only He who is its overseer in highest heaven knows, He only knows, or perhaps He does not know. Finally, the meter too is systematically arranged from jagati and tristubh to anustubh and gayatri as the text progresses. Just as in the Rigveda, the early sections of Samaveda typically begin with hymns to Agni and Indra but shift to the abstract. Their meters shift also in a descending order. The songs in the later sections of the Samaveda have the least deviation from the hymns derived from the Rigveda. The term "black" implies "the un-arranged, motley collection" of verses in Yajurveda, in contrast to the "white" well arranged Yajurveda. It has about hymns, and about of the hymns are in common with the Rigveda. The text also includes hymns dealing with the two major rituals of passage — marriage and cremation.

    They deal with procedural aspects of devotion to God, appropriateness of mantras to suit the occasion like how to sit, what mantras to repeat before and after devotion etc. Upanishads form the main section of the Aranyakas.

    The Vedas - Ancient History Encyclopedia

    Samhita and Aranyaka portion of Vedas relate more to yagnyas, rituals, performance of good karma than worship of the Supreme although they tell about God in Purushasookta and Isavasopanishad. Only a few of the branches of Aranyakas are available now in full.

    Upanishad portion of Aranyakas are available in good numbers, around It brings about the purport of the Veda in the form of mantras. These are verses in the praise of celestial male and female deities and some of them are also for the divine forms of the Supreme.

    Readers are often confused because both deva and devata are translated as God in English and other languages and sometimes even in Sanskrit in modern writings. Devatas generally refer to celesial deities like Indra, Agni, Varuna,vVayu etc. Deva refers to the Suprem. Individual divine forms of the Supreme are also translated as Gods. This has given raise to the criticism that there are too many Gods.

    Early Vedic Literature.pdf

    Samhitas, Brahmanas and non upanishadic portion of the Aranyakas are collectively called Vedas. It may be noted that Samhitas, Brahmanas, Aranyakas and Upanishads are all in number as delivered by Brahma.

    Only around are now available of the Upanishads are meant for deeper study and have their own characteristics.

    They are directly related to the God and show path to Gods realization, whereas Samhita and Brahmanas are related to the attainment of celestial luxuries. Upanishads subject matter is presented often in the form of dialogues between the teacher and the disciple. Upanishads have their own independent Divine status. These are philosophical track books and are foundation for systematic philosophy.

    The Upanishads are the basis of the shad-darshanas, the six major systems of Hindu philosophy--dvaitadvaita vada of Nimbakacharya, advaita vada of Sankaracharya, vishitadvaita of Ramanuja charya, dvaita of Madhvacharya, shuddha advaita vada of Vallabhacharya and achintya bhedabhed vada of Jeeva Goswami.

    Most of the stories of Upanishads revolve around the nature of Reality and the concept of single Supreme Being. The equation of the Atman, the self with Brahman, the ultimate reality is summed up in the phrase tat tvam asi in the Chandogya Upanishad.

    They are called the Gyanakhanda, the true knowledge part of the Vedas, while Samhita, Brahmana and non upanishadic part of Aranyakas are known as Karmakhanda, the ritiualistic part. A major portion of the Vedas deal with yagnyas and rituals as contained in the Samhitas, Brahmanas and Aranyakas.

    Only Around 6 percent of it deals with Jnaanakanda, that is Upanishads. Muktakopanishad has referred to Upanishads which cotain philosophies of Gods realization and basic facts of divine world or divinity. Upanishads glorify God, teach to renounce worldly attachments and surrender to the Supreme to receive His grace.

    There were books for the branches of Vedas. Dhanurveda, the science of defence, weaponry, missiles and warfare is related to Yajurveda. Gandharvaveda, science of music including instrumental music, art and dance is related to Samaveda. Aayurveda, the science related to life science and medicine is related to Atharvaveda.

    The first three upavedas are almost extinct. The last one is still in existence. Sages wrote a number of books on the science of preparation and use of herbs, roots, gems, metals, pearls etc. However the basic theory of the science of Ayurveda is available in full. These are Siksha, phonetics and pronunciation; Vyaakarana, grammar; Chandas, metric composition; Nirukta,vedic dictionary; Jyotisha, Astronomy and astrology; Kalpa, what induces one to vedic action.

    It is a complete science.

    Every letter has four vocal attainments--Pitch, high, low or medium voice; Duration, short or long; Position, nasal cerebral or palatal etc. It is explained in Sanskrit as vyaakriyate iti vyaakaranaha, which means that by which sentences are formed, examined and understood. Ancient grammars by 12 ancient sages including Kapila and Bharadwaja as mentioned by Panini are not available. Sivasutras, 14 in number, came out of the 14 sounds produced by the drum, Damaru of Siva, during the cosmic dance, Shivatandava nritya.

    Panini got the divine inspiration from these sutras and produced his first grammar Ashtadhyayi. It has sutras which forms the dictionary for the root words of Sanskrit. He also produced Unadi Sutra. With the help of Ashtadhyayi, Nirukta and Unadi sutra only one can get into the true meaning of the vedic mantras. Trying to translate vedic mantras with the help of Ashtadhyayi alone, western philosophers and even many Hindu Sanskrit scholors failed to get the true meanings. They sometimes make no sense with literal translation word to word.

    The absence of earlier vedic grammars was a big handicap. These are of different kinds. The book of Chandas teaches as to how to create a chandas, how to sing a chandas and includes correct pronunciation of vedic mantras.

    Gayatri, Trishtup, Jagati, Ushnik, Anushtup, Bruhati, Pankti are some of the meters used in the Rigveda of which Trishtup meter is used in more than mantras.

    Only one book by sage Yask is now available. It has different sections to describe the meaning of the vedic mantras. Nighant is the collection of vedic words with simple meaning of the words. Nirukt deals with complete meaning of the words. It is a complete work on vedic words details about the vedic words explaining their applied and implied meanings and synonyms of the vedic words.

    Vedas have sometimes very unusual and entirely different meanings than what is commonly understood even with the help of Paninis grammar.

    For example, Indra could mean Vishnu besides Indra. Vruka meaning wolf could also mean sun, moon, and many more. It has two sections; a Calculating the positions of the stars at a particular time.

    Very few books on jyotisha are available; most of them are extinct. The calculation part of the astrology is distinct, but the other part is indistinct.

    Garg samhita which is a voluminous work on persons life is fully extinct. The usefulness of the knowledge of phonetics, grammar, prosody, etymology, astrology and astronomy is in the performance of rituals as given in the Kalpa.

    Early Vedic Literature.pdf

    Kalpa is that which impels one to action and is considered to be combination of all vedangas. They are in the form of sutras-Shrauta sutra, Gruhya sutra, Dharma sutra, Shulba sutra etc. Shulba sutra gives details for the creation of altar, its exact geometric shape etc. There were branches of Shulba sastra with their own specifications. Poorva Mimamsa is for attaining celestial luxuries and not for the realization of God.

    Uttara Mimamsa by Vedavyasa is popularly known as Brahmasutra. It deals with the theme of the Upanishads and forms the basis for the development of modern philosophies mentioned earlier. Nyaya and Vaisheshik introduce the science of logical thinking of right and wrong and determine that God should be desired, and the attachment from the realm of the entire mayic manifestation should be removed.

    Sankhya and Yoga Darshan emphasize on the practice of meditation and samadhi to attain the desired limit of renunciation and the elimination of worldly attachments. Yoga describes the eight steps of yama, niyama, asana, pranayama, pratyahara, dhaarana, dhyana and samadhi.

    There are also subsidiary Puranas written by other authors. Puranas are usually in poetic form though some of them are prosaic. The Puranas reflect the social, religious and artistic culture of India since creation. The universal truths of devotion and generosity portrayed by the role models in the ancient Indian content, hold the same significance even today.

    Puranas throw light on the histoy of Hindu civilization, creation of the world and the development of life, the chronology of the entire history of Bharat Varsha, the description of Brahmanda, the origin of Geeta, origin of devanagari script and the Sanskrit language, its development,various incarnations, the spirit and message of Sanatana Dharma, the Hindu calendar, Time measurement etc.

    The eighteen major Puranas are Vishnu Purana ; 2. Bhagavata Purana; 3. Narada Purana; 4. Garuda Purana 5. Padma Purana; 6. Varaaha Purana; 7. Brahma Purana; 8.

    Brahmanda Purana; 9. Brahmavaivarta Purana; Maarkandeya Purana; Bhavishya Purana; Vaamana Purana; Vaayu Purana; Myths are products of beliefs, and beliefs are products of experience.

    This story reflects the concerns and experiences of a community based on agricultural lifestyle, where water is seen as one of the most valuable assets. Myths with an agricultural significance are found in many other cultures and dragon-slaying myths are told all over the world, especially in many other Indo-European traditions. Later Vedic Period During Vedic times, it was widely believed that rituals were critical to maintain the order of the cosmos and that sacred ceremonies helped the universe to keep working smoothly.

    In a sense, ceremonies were seen as part of a deal between humans and the gods: Humans performed sacrifices and rituals, and the gods would return their favour under the form of protection and prosperity. Priests were not willing to admit their helplessness in trying to master nature and would say that the gods ignored poor quality offers. The solution, the priests said, required more royal support.

    Brahman priests refused to have their privileges cut, so they developed a new literature which specified, sometimes in a very detailed way, how rituals had to be performed, the precise quantity and quality of material to be used, and the exact pronunciation of sacred formulas. This new set of texts, known as the Brahmanas, was attached to the Vedic collection around the 6th century BCE. The priests claimed that if sacrifices were performed exactly as they said, then the gods would be compelled to respond.

    When these new rituals also proved to be useless, many sectors of Indian society believed that this whole business of ritual and sacrifice had been taken too far. During the later Vedic period from c.

    The rituals, the sacrifices, the detailed rulebooks on ceremonies and sacrifices, all of these religious elements were being gradually rejected. Some of those who were against the traditional Vedic order decided to engage in the pursuit of spiritual progress, living as ascetic hermits, rejecting ordinary material concerns and giving up family life.

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